current affairs internationalize rupee

To internationalize the rupee or not?

The recent decision by the International Monetary Fund to include the Chinese renminbi in the Special Drawing Rights basket and announcements by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) allowing Indian companies to issue offshore rupee-denominated ‘masala’ bonds have triggered discussions on whether India is ready to ‘internationalize’ the rupee.

In popular discussions, rupee internationalization is often seen as a goal in itself. The notion that there needs to be a specific agenda for internationalizing the rupee is wrong.To explain this proposition, it is necessary to understand what is an international currency. Rupee will be an international currency if non-residents are willing and able to trade in it and invest in rupee-denominated assets.

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current general knowledge for competitive exams
LiFi internet might just be 100 times faster than WiFi Science & Technology" >

LiFi internet might just be 100 times faster than WiFi Science & Technology

The pilot testing of LiFi internet, an alternative technology to WiFi, has proved that it can send data at up to 1GBps, according to a report in The Telegraph UK. This is almost 100 times faster than the present WiFi technology.

LiFi uses light to beam information via air. The technology was first discovered by Professor Harald Haas of the University of Edinburgh in 2011.

Professor Haas had talked about the idea on TED talks in 2011, which has seen 1.7 million views on YouTube.


career planning tips on sales hunters
Traits of Successful Sales Hunters and Account Executives By Sanjay Gupta" >

Traits of Successful Sales Hunters and Account Executives By Sanjay Gupta

Career Planning Tips

Looking for a career in business development? Here are career planning tips to become successful sales hunters.

Business development roles follow two paths i.e. winning new business or managing and growing existing streams of business.

Hunters focus on bringing in net new business. Client executives (or miners), on the other hand sustain and grow existing streams of business and clients.

Success in the two roles requires different skills. Let’s highlight some of the key attributes which make individuals successful in these roles.

There is a myth that successful hunters are fast talking salespeople who are good at wining and dining clients and somehow in that processes finding a way to win deals.  While the ability to engage with prospective clients is essential, the research into client needs and crafting a proposition which entices them to buy is the key to successful hunting.

Traits of successful hunters

Hunting is the pursuit of new business. In young firms which are still building a client base, the focus is on acquiring new clients. Companies which already have a rich base of clients tend to direct their hunters for business expansion selling new services / products into their existing base of customers.

In both cases the hunters are selling new business and creating new relationships – and need to demonstrate success within a short span of time (typically a financial year).

Success factors

The key skills for a hunter are the ability to identify new business opportunities, engage with strangers,  and find common ground which can be developed into a deal.

To be successful, hunters need to:

  • Understand the needs/requirements of prospective clients; craft a clear proposition on what to sell to them, and how their prospective client will benefit from purchasing it.
  • Identify the “right” stakeholders who will be key in the decision cycle
  • Reach out proactively and connect with them.
  • Move a promising dialog forward towards a sale.
  • Be willing to take “no” for an answer and move on to look for alternate opportunities.

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WEF Gender Index

WEF’s Gender Index

WEF Gender Index Report for Competitive Exams

India fell five places in terms of women in the workforce to hit nearly the bottom of the rankings at 139 of 145 countries, its worst rank in this category since 2006.

Indian women have also regressed in terms of health and survival, placed at a lowly 143 out of 145. India is one of the three countries that have declined the furthest on the health and survival sub-index, the other two being China and Albania.

The WEF’s assessment of India’s ranking in terms of sex ratio at birth (143), a sub-indicator in the health and survival category, is unchanged from last year and is ahead only of China and Armenia.

On educational attainment—a fourth parameter in the overall gender index after political representation, economy and health—India has improved marginally, going up one place from 126 in 2014 to 125 this year.

The report said the female to male ratio in India’s labour force participation is 0.35 now against 0.36 in 2014. Income disparity is also high, with women earning an estimated average of $2,257 per year, compared with $9,175 for men.

For 2015, the top 10 ranked countries in terms of gender include the Scandinavian trio of Iceland, Finland and Norway. They are followed by Sweden and Ireland. One African country, Rwanda, comes in at number 7 and an Asian country, the Philippines ranks 9.

The Asia-Pacific top 10 include two South Asian countries—Bangladesh at 64 and Sri Lanka at 84.

India’s Gender Index Rank over the years


Year No. of countries Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score
2015 145 108 0.664 139 0.383 125 0.896 143 0.942 9 0.433
2014 142 114 0.646 134 0.410 126 0.850 141 0.937 15 0.385
2013 136 101 0.655 124 0.446 120 0.857 135 0.931 9 0.385
2012 135 105 0.644 123 0.459 121 0.852 134 0.931 17 0.334
2011 135 113 0.619 131 0.396 121 0.837 134 0.931 19 0.312
2010 134 112 0.615 128 0.403 120 0.837 132 0.931 23 0.291
2009 134 114 0.615 127 0.412 121 0.843 134 0.931 24 0.273
2008 130 113 0.606 125 0.399 116 0.845 128 0.931 25 0.248
2007 128 114 0.594 122 0.398 116 0.819 126 0.931 21 0.227
2006 115 98 0.601 110 0.397 102 0.819 103 0.962 20 0.227

The report says:

The magnitude of national gender gaps is the combined result of various socioeconomic, policy and cultural variables. Governments thus have a leading role to play as the closure or continuation of these gaps is intrinsically connected to the framework of national policies in place. The Index does not seek to set priorities for countries but rather to provide a comprehensive set of data and a clear method for tracking gaps on critical indicators so that countries may set priorities within their own economic, political and cultural contexts. In addition, governments must align their efforts with those of business and civil society to foster growth that includes both men and women. The World Economic Forum’s Global Challenge on Gender Parity seeks to promote public-private cooperation to close gender gaps, based in part on the analytical tools provided by this Report as well as others.

To download and read complete report visit


career success tips

Career Planning – Three Big Secrets of Success

Career Planning

The three big secrets of success are your mental attitude, concentration and job satisfaction. Combined into a unifying force, they act as magic-wands. The three attributes stem from your own thinking. They are the seeds of thought.

James Allen say in “As a Man Thinketh”, “a man is literally what he thinks, his character being the complete sum of all his thoughts. As the plant springs from the seed, so every act of man springs from the hidden seeds of thought.”

What you make of your life and career depends mostly on your mental attitude and not so much on aptitude or readiness to learn or natural ability. Attitude is a collection of opinions hardened into a studied position. It is more important than aptitude in the matter of career advancement.

You can regard the routine study and effort as boring round of familiar, uninspiring chore. It is easy to brush  it away as unnecessary framework for achievement. In the same way, you can take either a positive or negative attitude to your success and failure.

You can dismiss success as fluke, unlikely to happen again. Or you may regard it as an opportunity for future and further achievement. It is your attitude that matters.

You can allow failures and setbacks to brake your progress, looking them as proof that you cannot succeed. You may even invent an alibi that you aimed too high.

Alternatively, you may take the positive line of learning. Obviously, the right attitude is the positive one. This attitude leads to achievement.

Yes, you can acquire this attitude. All you need to do is to break the hold of the negative. You cannot cultivate the positive attitude if your mind is dominated by the negative thoughts. you cannot achieve anything if you do not have the courage to try. Replace the negative with positive.

Assess your abilities. Know your strong as well as weak points. Strengthen your plus points. Fill in the deficiencies. List the qualities that in your own estimation make you a unique person. This will help to make you feel more positive about yourself.

Watch your words. Use bright, optimistic expressions about your own self; steer clear of discouraging and disparaging. Draw attention to the positive. Turn your back on back-biting. When a person is being painted black, do not join the chorus. Rather, try to put in a good word.

Keep distance from chronic nags. They always speak destructively. Do not discuss with them your future programmes and plans.

Positive mental attitude also means refusing to cave-in when things go wrong. There is nothing bad in failing. Rather, give yourself a chance after gaining from the experience of failure.

The right attitude turns even the worst of negative, crippling failure to a positive, thrilling success.

Even a blazing sun cannot burn a hole in a tissue-paper unless its rays are focussed and concentrated on the spot. The fact is that you have the spark that can ignite success. You also have the mental ability to take you to new heights. All that is required is a positive attitude to help you focus and concentrate your energies and brain-power.

It is the incomplete or badly done jobs that let you down. Discipline your mind to help ward off distraction and concentrate on the job in hand. Harness imagination and visualize to realize. Direct your wayward mind into the pre-determined stream, shut out the irrelevant and see yourself finishing successfully.

Lack of concentration means failure to hit the bull’s eye, which leads to waste of energy, time and effort. It also leads to shattering of the self-confidence.

Now, lets talk about job satisfaction. A satisfied worker has always been found to be more productive. The sense of accomplishment, doing well on the job and enjoying every bit of it makes one feel competent and contended.

Salary, of course, is the primary incentive for doing a job. But, other factors also have an important role to play. Meeting challenges and being productive and creative leads to inner wellness. A job that you enjoy builds a sense of competence and self-esteem. Many people also cite the companionship of co-workers as a reason to work.

Which factors are most important depend on a individual, his or her background, expectations and goals.

Understanding Numerical Reasoning

Understanding Numerical Reasoning Tests

Understanding Numerical Reasoning Tests

Numerical reasoning tests are not meant to test your mathematical skills. For that purpose, there are quantitative aptitude tests. These tests measure a candidate’s ability to analyze, interpret and draw logical conclusions that are based on the numerical data given. Thus, understanding numerical reasoning tests is important

In today’s world, all organisations are privy to huge amount of data that, if analyzed properly, can help achieve better business goals. Thus, companies are looking for people who have good analytical skills and ability to analyze data—both numerical and subjective.

In such Tests, candidates are provided with information in the form of graphs and tables that project different situations. Each situation is followed by a number of questions relating to the information given. The candidates are required to decide the correct answer to each question solely on the basis of the given numerical information.

A crucial point to be noted here is that these tests have time limits and are designed in such a way that only about two to three per cent of the test-takers can correctly answer all the questions in the given time.

Since these are not maths test, calculators are allowed to be used. However, it is advised to check before taking the exam if use of calculator is allowed.

Numerical Reasoning Tests are used by recruiting agencies/employees to find if the candidate is:

  • capable of efficiently and effectively identifying critical business-related issues based on logically drawn conclusions from the given numerical data;
  • capable of efficiently monitoring performance and progress based on numerical metrics;
  • capable of clearly presenting issues in forms of charts and tables to the higher management and clients.

The level of these exams is set on the basis of benchmarks set for different jobs. For example, candidates applying for a post-graduate role are expected to have stronger numerical capabilities than those applying for a graduate job. Similarly, level of such Tests will be easier for marketing executive jobs vis-à-vis Engineering or managerial jobs.

The level of difficulty is generally defined using three dimensions – amount of data (some questions only offer the data you need to get to the answer, but others have much more data that is used to distract your attention and consume time), time limitation (a test at a higher level of difficulty will allow you less time for each test question) and complexity of data (number of transformations or calculations you need to do to find the answer).

The only way to prepare for such Tests is to practice, practice, and more practice. Your being good at maths will be an advantage but you will still encounter a number of hurdles that you would be able to tackle only if you have practiced well.

To practice, you can take online tests on offer as also use various reasoning test books.

In most cases, there is no ‘passing’ marks for such tests. A candidate’s result is calculated relative to that of other people in similar roles. This means that even if you correctly answered most of the questions, your result may still be lower than that of other people in similar roles. For example, a candidate correctly answers 24 of 30 questions. However, other people in similar roles, on average, answer correctly 26 of 30 questions. This means that your ‘good result’ is actually a ‘bad result’ because it’s lower than the average result.

Point to remember: Such tests are not something that you can learn by reading a book or simply taking tuition classes. To master these tests requires a combination of practice, concentration and knowledge of test-taking strategies.

how to solve test of reasoning
How to Solve Reasoning Questions Exam Preparation Tips" >

How to Solve Reasoning Questions Exam Preparation Tips

Tips on How to Solve Reasoning Questions

The Reasoning Ability section is one of the most crucial parts of any competitive exam. You need to be aware of the different types of reasoning questions that are asked, as also practice to develop the ability to solve them as quickly as you can.

Test of Reasoning questions can be broadly classified in following head:

  1. Analytical Reasoning: A number of clues are given based on on which you have to answer a set of questions. To solve such questions make a table of the clues and then answer based on your analysis.
  2. Logical Reasoning: In such questions, either a large table is given or some clues are given in the form of a riddle. You have to arrive on your answers after figuring out the elements of the riddle or table.
  3. Mathematical Reasoning: You are required to do some simple maths to solve such questions. For example finding the missing number based on some mathematical equation on which the given series has been made; or finding how many triangles can exist of a particular perimeter, and so on.
  4. Games: These type of questions are mostly been asked in CAT and other Management Entrance Tests. On basis of a given data you have to find out either the odd or matches played/lost. Such questions require processing of lots of data.
  5. Puzzles: Such questions are generally long and require more than a minute to solve. A number of conditions are given that give limitations to the answers. Sometimes there might be just one question to be answered, which makes it a tie consuming exercise. You need to practice a lot of puzzles from books and on internet to train yourself to solve such questions in shortest possible time.
  6. Miscellaneous Reasoning: This is a combination of data and reasoning and the questions cannot be solved by conventional methods of data interpretation. The charts need to be interpreted using logic.


The questions can be easy to extremely difficult. A systematic arrangement of facts and step-by-step approach is required. Generally, a large number of statements are given and you have to process all the statements to come to the answer. The task becomes easy if you are able to spot the crucial statements first and proceed to others thereafter. Following steps will be useful while attempting such questions:

  1. Read the given information and decide how best the information can be arranged.
  2. Arrange the information in tables, charts or maps.
  3. Look for the crucial statements fist that give the maximum information.
  4. Use arrows, crosses and other notations for different elements.
  5. Do not proceed sequentially.
  6. Tackle one or two variables at a time, completely ignoring the other variables.

Here is a sample question to help you to understand better:


Directions: Answer the following questions based on statements given below:

(i) There are three houses on each side of the road

(ii) These six houses are labelled as P, Q, R, S, T and U

(iii) These houses are of different colours, namely, Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Yellow and White

(iv) These houses are of different heights

(v) T, the tallest house, is exactly opposite the Red coloured house.

(vi) The shortest house is exactly opposite the Green coloured house.

(vii) U, the Orange coloured house is located between P and S

(viii) R, the Yellow coloured house is exactly opposite P.

(ix) Q, the Green coloured house is exactly opposite U

(x) P, the White coloured house is taller than R, but shorter than S and Q

  1. What is the colour of the tallest house?
    (a) Red  (b) Blue  (c) Green  (d) Yellow  (e) None of these
  2. What is the colour of the house diagonally opposite the Yellow coloured house?
    (a) White  (b) Blue  (c) Green  (d) Red  (e) None of these
  3. Which is the second tallest house?
    (a) Red  (b) Blue  (c) Green  (d) Yellow  (e) None of these


How to attempt:

At first glance the question looks difficult: ten statements have to be read and arranged. There are three variables: colour, height, order. If you will start looking at all variables at once you will definitely get confused. The second trap is to process the information sequentially, that is, reading each statement and writing it down in the arrangement. This will end up in a big mess by the time we are at the half way mark of our processing of the data.

Instead, scan all the statements quickly and see which statements give the maximum information. In this question the crucial statement is number (vii). Immediately we know that the three houses on one side are P,U and S. Combining it with statements (viii) and (ix) we have the order of the houses as follows:

P R (Yellow)
U (Orange) Q (Green)

​Note that the above diagram is obtained just by processing three statements and gives us a lot of clarity. Also note, that at this stage we are completely ignoring the third variable, height. Now we can use the information from the other statements. From (v) we see that T is the tallest house. From (x) we see that P is White. Since the tallest house is opposite the Red house, the only colour left for T is Blue, and that is the answer to the first question. For the second question we see that R, the Yellow coloured house, is opposite S. We are already given the colour of S, that is Red. So, we are able to answer two of the three questions simply by using the colour information. For the third question, we will need to use the third variable, height. The crucial statement for height is (x). From this we get: S, Q > P > R. Since T is the tallest, we can write: T > S, Q > P > R. To find the second tallest house we need to know the heights of U, S and T. Scan the ten statements again and we see that no such information is given. So, the answer to the third question is: None of these (e). The trick is to maintain clarity and not get bogged down by excess information. Always assess one or two variable at a time and you will never go wrong or get confused.


Directions: Answer on the basis of the information given below:K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, U and W are the only ten members in a department. There is a proposal to form a team from within the members of the department, subject to the following conditions:

  • A team must include exactly one among P, R and S
  • A team must include either M or Q but not both
  • If a team includes K, then it must also include L, and vice versa
  • If a team includes one among S, U and W then it also must include the other two.
  • L and N cannot be members of the same team.
  • L and U cannot be members of the same team.

The size of the team is defined as the number of members in the team.

  1. Who cannot be a member of a team of size 3.
    (a)(b) M   (c) N   (d) P    (e) Q
  2. Who can be a member of a team of size 5?
    (a)(b) L   (c) M   (d) P    (e) R
  3. What would be the size of the largest possible team?
    (a)(b) 7   (c) 6   (d) 5    (e) Cannot be defined
  4. What would be the size of a team that include K?
    (a) 2 or 3  (b) 2 or 4   (c) 3 or 4   (d) Only 2    (e) Only 4
  5. In how many ways a team can be constituted so that the team includes N?
    (a) (b) 3   (c) 4   (d) 5    (e) 6

How to attempt:

The method to be used here will be different from what we used in Set 1. Order is not required in this case. Different teams are possible so we cannot make a table. Each question has to be tackled separately, using the clues given.

The first two statements are crucial as they tell us that one member must be chosen from each of PRS and MQ.

Approaching the first question, we have to make a team of three, with two members already from the above two groups. We see that L cannot be there because if L is selected then K also has to be there. This will lead to a four-member team. Hence, L cannot be part of any three-member team.

For the second question, if we choose K then L has to be there, then we have to take one from M or Q, and one from P or Q or S making it four members. Problem is choosing the fifth. N is ruled out because of the second last statement and U cannot be part of the five-member team because of the fourth statement. By this logic K and L are ruled out as they cannot be part of any five-member team. Taking M, we can take other members as S, U, W and one of P/R/S. Hence (c) is the correct answer.

Solving question 2 helps us to solve Question 3 also. We already know that five-ember team is possible. Since K and L cannot be part of a five-member team, by the same logic, they cannot join the six-member team also. Thus, there is no member who can be added to the make a six-member team. Thus maximum team size possible is five.

Question 4 can be solved using the previous information. If K,L are chosen then maximum team size can be 4.

For Question 5 we find that analyzing the information we used for previous questions we find that if N is taken, L cannot be taken. If we take U we have team consisting of SUWNM or SUWNQ. If U is not taken we have NMP/NMR and NQP/NQR. Thus we have six different ways in which we can make a team that includes N.


The challenge before you is to process large amount of information in shortest possible time. This looks to be a daunting task, but learning to break the information in parts can make it easy and manageable. The technique can be learned by practice, and more practice.

CLICK HERE to take a Test of Reasoning Practice test and assess your capability to attempt Reasoning questions. We will be posting more practice tests in coming months. So keep coming back for more!